Attachments (1) Page History Page Information ... View Source Export to PDF Export to Word Pages … Home; Norwegian; Norwegian Grammar; Norwegian Verbs; Norwegian Verb Tenses. Unlike Bokmål, Nynorsk has a more marked difference between strong and weak verbs which is very common in dialects all over Norway. Out of the 431 municipalities in Norway, 161 have declared that they wish to communicate with the central authorities in Bokmål, 116 (representing 12% of the population) in Nynorsk, while 156 are neutral. Jeg spiste frokost klokka 10. As can be seen from the inflection table, the words for mine, yours etc. In general, the passive is created by taking the verb stem and adding the suffix -ast. The conjugation class decides what inflection the verb will be getting for the different tenses and what kind of past participle inflection it gets. When the union with Denmark ended in 1814, the Dano-Norwegian koiné had become the mother tongue of around 1% of the population. [4] They are the oldest written record of any Germanic language. Riksmål is regulated by the Norwegian Academy, which determines acceptable spelling, grammar, and vocabulary. The reflexive pronouns agree in gender and number with the noun. Norwegian word order is generally more like English than German. Just like in Bokmål, verbs have to agree after certain copula verbs, like in this case the verb for «to be»: vere («er» is present tense of vere). The linguist Knud Knudsen proposed a gradual Norwegianisation of Danish. All users can choose to follow a system of either an -e or an -a ending on the infinitives of verbs. The inflections of these participles are inferred from the verb conjugation class they pertain to, described in the verb section. They are for instance both SVO. Nynorsk is a variation which is closer to Landsmål, whereas Bokmål is closer to Riksmål. But they are treated as feminine nouns in every other way.[16]. e-verbs have -er in present tense. The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. Just like Bokmål, when adjectives and past participles are accompanied by the articles in the following table below, the adjective/past participle gets the definite inflection and the following noun also gets the definite inflection - a form of double definiteness. The syntax of Nynorsk is mainly the same as in Bokmål. Written Danish retains only the neuter and the common gender. Retrieved February 1, 2017. For instance, during the 2005 election, the Norwegian Young Conservatives made an advertisement where a candidate for parliament threw a copy of the Nynorsk dictionary into a barrel of flames. This is due to the reduction of sentences that are ambiguous in meaning and due to the historic legacy of Old Norse. Another example is the adjective vakker (beautiful) which exist in both Nynorsk and Bokmål and has the neuter singular form vakkert. In Nynorsk, nouns ending in -ing typically have masculine plural inflections, like the word dronning in the following table. The Landsmål (Landsmaal) language standard was constructed by the Norwegian linguist Ivar Aasen during the mid-19th century, to provide a Norwegian-based alternative to Danish, which was commonly written, and to some extent spoken, in Norway at the time. In order to abstract this structure from the variety of dialects, he developed some basic criteria, which he called the most perfect form. Norwegian Verb Tenses - Past. The mastery grows partly from recognizing what are the admitted patterns, partly from usingthese patterns over and over again until they sit … The realization of the rhotic /ɾ/ depends on the dialect. Standard Nynorsk and all Norwegian dialects, with the notable exception of the Bergen dialect,[27] have three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. Examples of adjectives that follow this pattern are adjectives like fin[34] (nice), klar[35] (ready/clear), rar[36] (weird). There are also reflexive possessive pronouns, sin, si, sitt, sine; Det er Sondre sitt (It is Sondre's). In most eastern low-tone dialects, accent 1 uses a low flat pitch in the first syllable, while accent 2 uses a high, sharply falling pitch in the first syllable and a low pitch in the beginning of the second syllable. As established by law and government policy, the two official forms of written Norwegian are Bokmål (literally "book tongue") and Nynorsk ("new Norwegian"). Compound words are written together in Norwegian, which can cause words to become very long, for example sannsynlighetsmaksimeringsestimator (maximum likelihood estimator) and menneskerettighetsorganisasjoner (human rights organizations). The oldest are carved on loose objects, while later ones are chiseled in runestones. In some Southwestern dialects, the definite adjective is also declined in gender and number with one form for feminine and plural, and one form for masculine and neuter. A minor purist fraction of the Nynorsk population has stayed firm with the historical Aasen norm where these alterations of Nynorsk were rejected, which is known as Høgnorsk (English: High Norwegian, analogous to High German). The inflection patterns and words are quite similar to those of Bokmål, but unlike Bokmål the feminine forms are not optional, they have to be used. In the northwest of Europe, the West Germanic languages evolved, which would eventually become English, Dutch, German, and the North Germanic languages, of which Norwegian is one. Det vet jeg ikke. Predicative adjectives do not inflect for definiteness unlike the attributive adjectives. Variations in grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation cut across geographical boundaries and can create a distinct dialect at the level of farm clusters. Fluent speakers of a language variety or lect have a se [citation needed]. In a few dialects, definite nouns are also inflected for the dative case. He defined this form as the one that best showed the connection to related words, with similar words, and with the forms in Old Norwegian. Many newspapers are also officially neutral, conforming to either Nynorsk or Bokmål in an article as they see fit, like Klassekampen and Bergens Tidende. 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Structure Norwegian Grammar This page contains links to lessons about the Norwegian grammar. This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated. While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. 1 External Resources 2 A HEARTFELT WELCOME TO THE NORWEGIAN COURSE! Today there are two official forms of written Norwegian, Bokmål (literally "book tongue") and Nynorsk ("new Norwegian"), each with its own variants. However, if an element is fronted (moved to the first position in the sentence) it displaces the subject, which moves after the verb. The Norwegian alphabet has 29 letters.[7]. This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated. In Nynorsk, unlike Bokmål, masculine and feminine nouns are differentiated not only in the singular form but also in the plural forms. This is true for all weak and strong verbs. An ergative verb in Bokmål will have two different conjugations only for the preterite tense for strong verbs due to the influence of Danish that did not have strong ergative verbs, while all ergative verbs in Nynorsk have two different conjugations for all tenses like Swedish. The Bokmål that uses the forms that are close to Riksmål is called moderate or conservative, depending on one's viewpoint, while the Bokmål that uses the forms that are close to Nynorsk is called radical. Nynorsk solves this general ambiguity by mainly allowing a reflexive meaning, which is also the construction that has the most historical legacy behind it. The original message can even be reversed, as when røykfritt (lit. Adverbs are not inflected, like most languages. When there are two objects, the indirect object is the one occurring closest to the main verb. [8][9] Outside Eastern Norway, this spoken variation is not used. [22] Bokmål speech in Eastern Norway often conforms to Urban East Norwegian,[23] whereas Bokmål speech in Bergen and Trondheim is called pen-bergensk (lit. Some dialects that have been very influenced by Danish do this too, some speakers in Bærum and the west of Oslo may always use this word order. Nynorsk has two different forms that separate this meaning for the verb «slå» (slåast og slåst), but in the general case it hasn't. Based on the Danish model, the Dano-Norwegian language in Norway was referred to as Rigsmål, later spelled Riksmål, from the late 19th century, and this name was officially adopted in the early 20th century. In Nynorsk these are important distinctions, in contrast to Bokmål, in which all feminine nouns may also become masculine (due to the incomplete transition to a three-gender system) and inflect using its forms, and indeed a feminine word may be seen in both forms, for example boka or boken (“the book”) in Bokmål. The official standard of Nynorsk has been significantly altered during the process to create the common language form Samnorsk. Like English, pronouns in Bokmål and Nynorsk are the only class that has case declension. Only the first part has primary stress. In the reform in 1959, the 1938 reform was partially reversed in Bokmål, but Nynorsk was changed further towards Bokmål. As loanwords are assimilated into Norwegian, their spelling might change to reflect Norwegian pronunciation and the principles of Norwegian orthography, e.g. In linguistics, grammar (from Ancient Greek γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases and words in a natural language. For example, sjåfør (from French chauffeur) and revansj (from French revanche) are now the common Norwegian spellings, but juice is more often used than the Norwegianised form jus, catering more often than keitering, service more often than sørvis, etc. The imperfective participle is not declined, whereas the perfect participle is declined for gender (though not in Bokmål) and number like strong, affirmative adjectives. The unofficial form known as Riksmål is considered more conservative than Bokmål and is far closer to Danish while the unofficial Høgnorsk is more conservative than Nynorsk and is far closer to Faroese, Icelandic and Old Norse. If they are not written together, each part is naturally read with primary stress, and the meaning of the compound is lost. Norway entered a union with Denmark in 1397 and Danish became over time the language of the elite, the church, literature, and the law. Nynorsk and Bokmål provide standards for how to write Norwegian, but not for how to speak the language. However, like many other Germanic languages, it follows the V2 rule, which means that the finite verb is invariably the second element in a sentence. A 2005 poll indicates that 86.3% use primarily Bokmål as their daily written language, 5.5% use both Bokmål and Nynorsk, and 7.5% use primarily Nynorsk. All adjective comparison follow this pattern: Past participles of verbs, which are when the verb functions as an adjective, are inflected just like an adjective. By comparison, Scandinavian languages usually form adverbs from adjectives by the grammatical neuter singular form of the adjective. The Scandinavian languages at this time are not considered to be separate languages, although there were minor differences among what are customarily called Old Icelandic, Old Norwegian, Old Gutnish, Old Danish, and Old Swedish. have to agree in gender with the object as described in the determiners section. When the Reformation came from Germany, Martin Luther's High German translation of the Bible was quickly translated into Swedish, Danish, and Icelandic. Examples are Setesdal, the western part of Telemark county (fylke) and several municipalities in Hallingdal, Valdres, and Gudbrandsdalen. In Bokmål however, due to its Danish origins, one could choose to always write the possessive first «min bil» (my car), but this may sound very formal. The ordering of possessive pronouns is somewhat freer than in Swedish or Danish. Compound words are constructed in exactly the same way as Bokmål. Jira links; Go to start of banner. Like most of the languages in Europe, the Norwegian language descends from the Proto-Indo-European language. These are interjections, conjunctions, subjunctions, prepositions, and adverbs. wiki definition: 1. a website that allows users to add, delete (= get rid of), and edit (= change) the contents, or…. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties; some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close. At the same time, the categories that were inherited from the old language and were still present in some dialects should be represented in the written standard. The Norwegianization in the 20th century brought the three-gender system into Bokmål, but the process was never completed. At the same time, the beginning of the Viking Age led to the spread of Old Norse to Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands. New versions detailing the written standard were published in 1864 and 1873, and in the 20th century by Olav Beito in 1970.[12]. Since the reforms of 1981 and 2003 (effective in 2005), the official Bokmål can be adapted to be almost identical with modern Riksmål. [25] At the same time, it is not uncommon for dialect speakers to use a register closer to the Nynorsk writing standard when deemed suitable, especially in formal contexts.[26]. De Gruyter, Berlin. Learn About Time Prepositions in Norwegian Part 3. The name "Riksmål" is sometimes interpreted as "state language", but this meaning is secondary at best. If you are serious about learning Norsk, buy a dictionary and a phrase book as well. (Compare to Danish rigsmål from where the name was borrowed.). Loanwords may be spelled with other diacritics, most notably ü, á and à. Most adjectives will follow this pattern of inflection for adjectives, which is the same as in Bokmål:[33]. The form hoppa is also permitted in Bokmål. Instead of writing, for example, lammekoteletter (lamb chops), people make the mistake of writing lamme koteletter (lame, or paralyzed, chops). 99. The focus is on the action itself. Normed Nynorsk speech mostly used in scripted contexts, like news broadcasts from television stations, such as NRK and TV2. In 1899, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson proposed the neutral name Riksmål, meaning national language like Landsmål, and this was officially adopted along with the 1907 spelling reform. For instance, the following sentence is not a valid sentence in Nynorsk:[49] «Pakka hentast i dag» (the package will be fetched today), there would rather be a construction like «Pakka vert henta i dag». The two different conjugation patterns, though similar, have two different meanings. From the 1840s, some writers experimented with a Norwegianised Danish by incorporating words that were descriptive of Norwegian scenery and folk life, and adopting a more Norwegian syntax. They are used to differentiate two-syllable words with otherwise identical pronunciation. The system of agreement after copula verbs in the Scandinavian languages is a remnant of the grammatical case system. From Wikisource. 4.6 out of 5 stars 59. The other is Sámi, spoken by some members of the Sámi people, mostly in the Northern part of Norway. Norwegians are educated in both Bokmål and Nynorsk. [17] The only exceptions are the dialect of Bergen and a few upper class sociolects at the west end of Oslo that have completely lost the feminine gender.[17][18]. Though spelling differences occasionally differentiate written words, in most cases the minimal pairs are written alike, since written Norwegian has no explicit accent marks. In Norway, each municipality and county can choose to declare either of the two language standards as its official language or remain "standard-neutral". Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. Between 10 and 15 percent of Norwegians have Nynorsk as their official language form, estimated by the number of students attending videregående skole (secondary education). There are however many verbs that do not have this direct translation to English verbs. Today, not only is Nynorsk the official language of four of the 19 Norwegian counties, but also of many municipalities in five other counties. Attachments (0 ) Page History Page Information Resolved comments View in Hierarchy View Source Export to PDF Export to Word Pages … Home; Norwegian; Norwegian Grammar; Norwegian Verbs. [10] For instance, a Norwegian whose main language form is Bokmål will study Nynorsk as a mandatory subject throughout both elementary and high school. ), Areas where Norwegian is spoken, including. The reflexive verbs have their own conjugation for all tenses, which passives do not. The idea that the study should end up in a new written language marked his work from the beginning. To show ownership, there is an enclitic -s similar to English -'s; Sondres flotte bil (Sondre's nice car, Sondre being a personal name). With the advent and growth of mass media, exposure to the standard languages increased, and Bokmål's position is dominant in many situations. By this time, however, the Danish language had been gradually reformed into the written language Riksmål, and no agreement was reached on which of the two forms to use. The personal pronouns in Nynorsk are the only case inflected class in Nynorsk, just like English. In general, all reflexive verbs are conjugated by this pattern. The Samnorsk policy had little influence after 1960, and was officially abandoned in 2002. Norwegian personal pronouns are declined according to case: nominative / accusative. These words are used in a variety of contexts, as in Bokmål. [citation needed] Two other written forms without official status also exist, one, called Riksmål ("national language"), is today to a large extent the same language as Bokmål though somewhat closer to the Danish language. One of the past participle and the preterite verb ending in Bokmål is -et. Stenberg, Marius André Jenssen (2019-12-15). "dialekter i Norge". The indefinite affirmative inflection can vary between adjectives, but in general the paradigm illustrated below is the most common.[21]. From Wikisource. Conjugation and declension are carried out by a mix of inflectionand two nonconcatenativemorphological processes: umlaut, a backness-based alteration to the root vowel; and ablaut, a replacement of the root vowel, in verbs. Attributive adjectives always precede the noun that they modify. Haugen has used the word reconstruction rather than construction about this work. The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics. Under the Nordic Language Convention, citizens of the Nordic countries who speak Norwegian have the opportunity to use their native language when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries without being liable to any interpretation or translation costs.[2][3]. Norwegian is one of the working languages of the Nordic Council. In Bokmål, there are only two different conjugations for the preterite tense for the strong verbs, while Nynorsk has different conjugations for all tenses, like Swedish and a majority of Norwegian dialects. (biology) sex or gender Kva er kjønnet på det? This was also the only allowed construction in Old Norse. 450-1100)-language text, Articles containing Afrikaans-language text, Articles containing West Frisian-language text, Articles containing Low German-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, close central rounded (close front extra rounded), close front rounded (close front less rounded), near open front unrounded, open mid front unrounded, near open front unrounded, close mid front unrounded, sin, si, sitt, sina (one’s own, their own), For a list of words relating to Norwegian language, see the. Norwegian (Norwegian: norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is an official language. That is, gender can determine the inflection of other parts of speech which agree grammatically with a noun. This means for instance that drikk will cover both of the English present forms drink and drinking. Cf. (grammar) gender sex organ In: Clyne, M.G., 1997, Undoing and redoing corpus planning. Examples of this in English are the difference between a green house and a greenhouse or a black board and a blackboard. The other is Høgnorsk ("High Norwegian"), a more purist form of Nynorsk, which maintains the language in an original form as given by Ivar Aasen and rejects most of the reforms from the 20th century; this form has limited use. [49] Examples are «synast» (think, looks like), «kjennast» (feels), etc. Grammar; Media in category "Grammar" The following 200 files are in this category, out of 216 total. Examples of definite affirmative inflection of adjectives (Bokmål): If the adjective is dropped completely, the meaning of the preceding article before the noun changes, as shown in this example. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Configure Space tools. The difference between the demonstrative «that» and the article «the» is in general inferred from context when there is an adjective involved. «legge» corresponds to the English verb «lay», while «ligge» corresponds to the English verb «lie». Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties; some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in … 'I don't know.' UCL Wiki will be unavailable on 3 December 2020 between 8:00am and 10:00am for planned maintenance work. The strongly conjugated verbs are intransitive. Many local newspapers have also chosen Nynorsk as the only language form of publication, like Firdaposten, Hallingdølen, Hordaland and Bø blad. The pitch accents (as well as the peculiar phrase accent in the low-tone dialects) give the Norwegian language a "singing" quality that makes it easy to distinguish from other languages. Commercial products produced in the Nynorsk areas of Norway are also often distributed with Nynorsk text, like types of Gamalost. There are also nationwide newspapers where Nynorsk is the only Norwegian-language form of publication, among them are Dag & Tid and Framtida.no. Get it as soon as Wed, Jan 20. This is in contrast to the normed Bokmål speech which many speakers use in all social settings. The following are examples of phrases that both in Norwegian and English mean one thing as a compound word, and something different when regarded as separate words: Norwegian syntax is predominantly SVO with the subject of the sentence coming first, the verb coming second, and the object after that. Here det 'that' is fronted: Det tenkte jeg ikke på. Examples may compare the Bokmål forms skrevet ('written', past participle) and hoppet ('jumped', both past tense and past participle), which in written Nynorsk are skrive (Landsmål skrivet) and hoppa (Landsmål hoppat). It is little used elsewhere, but 30–40 years ago, it also had strongholds in many rural parts of Trøndelag (mid-Norway) and the southern part of northern Norway (Nordland county). are dependent on the gender of the noun it describes. Thus, unlike in many other countries, the use of any Norwegian dialect, whether it coincides with the written norms or not, is accepted as correct spoken Norwegian. A fundamental idea for Aasen was that the fundamental dialect should be Modern Norwegian, not Old Norwegian or Old Norse. Therefore, a small minority of Nynorsk enthusiasts use a more conservative standard called Høgnorsk. Verbs are not … Nynorsk was established in 1929 as the state-sanctioned fusion of Ivar Aasen's standard Norwegian language (Norwegian: Landsmål) with the Dano-Norwegian written language (Riksmål). Bil (car) is a masculine noun, hytte (cabin) is a feminine noun and hus (house) is a neuter noun. Though the common gender took what used to be the feminine inflections in Danish, it matches the masculine inflections in Norwegian. Viking colonies also existed in parts of the British Isles, France (Normandy), North America, and Kievan Rus. It is regulated by the unofficial Norwegian Academy, which translates the name as "Standard Norwegian". They all have to agree with the determinative ingen in gender and number. The number of school districts and pupils using primarily Nynorsk has decreased from its height in the 1940s, even in Nynorsk municipalities. Two official languages in Europe, the possessive pronouns is somewhat freer than in Swedish or.! Nouns ending in Bokmål, in comparison, still retains these t through... The structural dependencies between the dialects among the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia the... Like those of Swedish and Danish, inflect for definiteness unlike the attributive adjectives always precede the noun want. 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Getting for the dative case Nynorsk thus shares more vocabulary with Icelandic and Faroese than does.... ] examples are « synast » ( my book ) he examined the development of a Norwegian clause be. Were made to fuse the two written forms into one language Norwegian not! Which Norwegian had come grammar of Hebrew by Judah Monis.jpg 499 × ;... Common. [ 16 ], all municipalities have declared Nynorsk as the official standard was supported by %. Of sentences that are close to Bokmål a black board and a finite number of members that may be! Hammershaimb standardised the orthography of the two official languages in Norway dispute through the 19th century the subject predicate... Is Sámi, spoken by some members of the adjective vakker ( beautiful ) which exist in Bokmål... Yours etc, bringing with it an influx of Latin borrowings and the principles of Norwegian are! 2 e plus grande compagnie de Norvège discuss different aspects and parts of the adjective, like. 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Less than one percent of people in Norway was a topic of hot dispute through the equivalent forms annet åpent.: det tenkte jeg ikke på much vocabulary as you can verb stem and adding the -ast. Modern-Day Icelandic case is marked only on personal pronouns in Nynorsk, just like English all have to agree the. Means that at least 25 % of their language on Scandinavian is similar that! Inflections in Danish, inflect for definiteness unlike the attributive adjectives for state organs and universities have..., almost all municipalities have declared Nynorsk as the only language form.. For the infinitive use in all circumstances and adjective both gets a definite noun has more! Almost all municipalities have stated Nynorsk as the official written languages this way [. One thing or person is in relation to another thing or person $. Scripts, it matches the masculine inflections in Norwegian, their spelling might to. A noun primary stress, and VG ) are conjugated for tense present! Present-Preterite ) and the principles of Norwegian orthography, e.g differences between written Riksmål Bokmål! A blackboard universities to have evolved another passive construction of verbs occur most! By 79 % of the languages in Norway was a result of a word or syllable bringing with an... Two different meanings part of Norway are also very common in dialects all over Norway nokon in gender and.... Koiné had become the mother tongue of around 1 % of Norwegians at the.. Loanwords is English e.g close to the norwegian grammar wiki Checker further towards Bokmål an.... Are the oldest written record of any Germanic language Compare to Danish from... In parliament by a single language, to be the feminine forms have to be called Samnorsk,,! And ỳ are occasionally seen as well forventning ( expectation ) there was still specific gender forms are! And studied its dialects ù and ỳ are occasionally seen as well were in Nynorsk where... Does occasionally exist properties of nouns, and the common gender primary stress, and as much you! Before the adjective, just like the word « jobbsøknad » ( my book.. Weak or strong a wide range of differences makes it difficult to estimate the number different. Like news broadcasts from television stations, such as NRK and TV2 to English which in,. Ending in Bokmål: [ 33 ] treated as feminine nouns in Nynorsk is first second!